Sourcing Coins from the Kushan Province of Modern-day Kashmir

Copper coins from the Kushan Province (the location of present day Kashmir) were analyzed by NAA at MURR, an investigation performed to study the changes in coinage over time. Very often the coins used during the former king's reign were restamped with the likeness of the new king, thus a recycling of the coins (and the ore they were made of) took place. In this particular study, we found that a different copper ore was used to produce coins for a successor king in the Kushan Province. This is very surprising. Where did this new copper ore come from?

The vessel pictured here with a hoard of copper coins is from the Pakistan, Gandhara region, Kushan period, ca. 100-300 CE. Photo courtesy of the Museum of Art and Archaeology University of Missouri-Columbia. Gift of Dr. David Nalin.