The Archaeometry Laboratory at MURR
The Archaeometry Laboratory at the University of Missouri Research Reactor was created in 1988 with support from the National Science Foundation. Although the lab had conducted archaeological research before this time, the laboratory-support grant awarded by the NSF allowed the laboratory to begin conducting research on a much broader scale. The laboratory offers a variety of analytical services to the archaeological community, and encourages the integration of analytical sciences into all aspects of anthropology and archaeology.
Click here to read a non-technical summary about the Archaeometry Laboratory and to view three case studies of research conducted here
History & Activities
Prior to 1988, archaeological research at MURR was conducted on a part-time basis by several individuals: James Vogt, David Ives, Jeremy Edward and Mike Glascock. The Archaeometry Laboratory at MURR was formally established in 1988 following receipt of a laboratory-support grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Since 1990, the principal investigators of the laboratory have included Mike Glascock, Hector Neff, Robert (Jeff) Speakman, and Jeffrey Fegurson. The initial and subsequent NSF grants have significantly reduced analytical costs for academic researchers from the USA who would otherwise lack access to archaeometric instrumentation. In addition to funding from the NSF, the laboratory is supported by cost-recovery charges for consumables used on NSF-subsidized projects, by service contracts with federal agencies (e.g., National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management), and by service-oriented analyses for the cultural resource management (CRM) industry.
Since 1988, the Archaeometry Laboratory at MURR has supported hundreds of research projects and conducted analyses of more than 145,000 archaeological specimens. Additionally, the lab has provided research training and employment for more than 30 students from the University of Missouri and more than 100 graduate students from other universities on dissertation and thesis projects. Laboratory staff have organized workshops and symposia at local, national, and international professional conferences, and they have published more than 500 scholarly articles in journals and book chapters.
Facilities and Instrumentation
MURR is a multi-disciplinary research and education center operated by the University of Missouri (MU)
and is located in Columbia, Missouri
. The Research Reactor provides MU with opportunities for research and graduate education in neutron-related sciences and engineering that are unmatched by any other university. The central focus of this research is the 10 MW light-water-moderated reactor
—the highest-powered university research reactor in the North America. The reactor has a 150+ hour per week (90% of available time) operating schedule, the best operating schedule for any research reactor in the world.
In 2000, the Archaeometry Laboratory began adding other analytical capabilities to enhance its ability to support archaeometric research. The first addition was a VG Elemental Axiom SC magnetic sector high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) and laser ablation system. This instrumentation provided the ability to analyze samples by both microwave digestion and laser ablation. More recently, the laboratory acquired a 193 nm Excimer laser ablation system with improved optics for microscopic samples and a NuPlasma multicollector ICP-MS for isotopic ratios at high resolution. Other equipment includes two hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometers. One of the spectrometers is connected to an automated sample changer. The addition of these complementary techniques has enhanced the capabilities of the laboratory to support a broad range of archaeological research.
Equipment at the laboratory includes a fume hood, muffle furnace, drying oven, analytical balances, laboratory press, glove box, rock saws, petrographic microscopes, mixer mill, and binocular microscopes. The laboratory operates four high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled to automatic sample changers, and it shares use of two other detectors with other MURR research groups. Data processing and report generation are handled on the MURR intranet of IBM-compatible computers. The laboratory maintains archival specimens from most archaeological projects conducted there.
Archaeometry Laboratory Staff and Students
The MURR Archaeometry Laboratory is operated by a team of skilled scientists, technicians and students.
Dr. Michael D. Glascock (Ph.D., 1975, Iowa State University) is a Research Professor and Group Leader of the Archaeometry Lab. He has over 35 years of experience with NAA and gamma-ray spectroscopy as applied to archaeology, geochemistry, and environmental science. His current research focus involves obsidian source and artifact characterization in the Western Hemisphere.
Dr. Jeffrey R. Ferguson (Ph.D., 2007, University of Colorado) is a Research Assistant Professor with an interest in archaeology in western North America and eastern Africa.
Dr. Brandi L. MacDonald (Ph.D., 2015, McMaster University-Canada) is a Sr. Research Specialist in the Archaeometry Lab. She is responsible for supervising our student employees. Dr. MacDonald is interested in provenance and quarrying studies, the archaeology of trade and exchange, landscape archaeology, and museum studies.
This position is currently vacant.
Post-doctoral Research Fellows
Dr. William D. Gilstrap (Ph.D., 2015, University of Sheffield, UK). His Ph.D. research focused on reconstructing ceramic production technology and exchange during the end of the Greek Late Bronze Age through the integration of thin section petrography, chemical analysis by NAA and microstructural analysis by SEM. His focus at MURR will center on analysis of ceramic materials and technology by thin section petrography and LA-ICP-MS in addition to NAA.
Dr. Virginie Renson (Ph.D., 2012, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-Belgium). Her PhD dissertation focused on the use of lead isotopes as tracers for pottery provenance in the Eastern Mediterranean. Virginie’s contribution at MURR will be to collaborate in the development of isotopic analyses on archaeological material using the Nu Plasma II MC-ICP-MS. Virginie is supported by the Belgian American Educational Foundation. [Visit Virginie's home page]
Three MU graduate students and several undergraduates are affiliated with the Archaeometry Lab. The graduate students are: John W N Brown (Department of Chemistry), Amanda Werlein (Department of Chemistry), and Heidi Noneman (Department of Anthropology). The graduate students are conducting research using resources of the Archaeometry Lab. The undergraduates are: Tom Ertl, Shannon Kelley, Caleb Klein, and Bianca Tomaszewski. The latter are responsible for sample preparation and irradiations of archaeological specimens by NAA and they participate in other research involving XRF and ICP-MS.
Interns and Visitors
We occasionally support visiting Ph.D. candidates from other U.S. academic institutions and from other countries for short- and long-term visits. These opportunities are not continuous and depend on our available funding and the funding support the visitor brings with them.
Recent visitors to the Archaeometry Lab include:
Estefania Calparsoro (Summer 2016) — conducting research on ceramics from the Basque region by neutron activation analysis.
Wugan Luo (March 2015 to February 2016) — conducting research on Chinese pottery and ancient Chinese metallurgy using both NAA and lead isotopes.
James Davenport (Summer 2014) — studying pottery from Peru.
Dr. Robert (Jeff) Speakman, former Senior Research Specialist at the MURR Archaeometry Laboratory, is currently Associate Director of the Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia. Jeff maintains interests in Mimbres ceramics from the American Southwest and in obsidian from Beringia.
Dr. Matthew T. Boulanger, former Senior Research Specialist at the MURR Archaeometry Laboratory, is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University. Matt has interests in archaeometry, evolutionary theory, landscape ecology, and Pleistocene extinctions.
Dr. Hector Neff, (Ph.D., 1984, U of California–Santa Barbara), former Senior Research Scientist at the MURR Archaeometry Laboratory from 1990 to 2002, is a Professor of Anthropology at California State University–Long Beach, and he collaborates with the Archaeometry Lab by maintaining the ceramic databases. He is interested in investigating ancient production and exchange of artifacts, including obsidian, pottery, and chert/flint. His specific research areas include both Pacific coastal and highland Guatemala.
Other students and faculty from MU's Department of Anthropology, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Department of Geological Sciences, and Department of Chemistry are frequently involved in research projects being conducted in the Archaeometry Lab at MURR. One of these is Candace Sall who is studying southwestern ceramics with NAA and LA-ICP-MS.
Data Exchanges & Inter-Laboratory Collaborations
The Archaeometry Lab maintains a continuous information exchange with scientists from the earlier-established NAA programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the British Museum, as well as with those using other analytical techniques for compositional research (e.g., ICP-MS at California State University – Long Beach; XRF at Northwest Obsidian Research Laboratory and the Berkeley Geoachaeological XRF Lab). The main reason for maintaining ties is the desire to promote inter-comparability of pottery and obsidian data through the use of common standards. More importantly, successful exchanges of data have been conducted as a means of maximizing the return on the investments in NAA conducted for archaeology over the past 50 years. When merged with data from the other laboratories, the overall compositional data bank of over 150,000 analyses becomes an outstanding tool for archaeological research.
The Archaeometry Lab gratefully acknowledges the support it has received from the National Science Foundation through laboratory-support grants and research equipment grants. Our colleagues at the University of Missouri and other universities and the staff an MURR continue to be strongly supportive. This support has helped to make the Archaeometry Lab a successful operation for the tremendous benefit of archaeological science.
Glascock, M.D. (2011).
Comparison and contrast between XRF and NAA: Used for characterization of obsidian sources in central Mexicoi. In X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) in Geoarchaeology, edited by M.S. Shackley, pp. 161-192. Springer Press, New York.
Glascock, M.D. (2014).
Neutron activation analysis (NAA): Applications in archaeology. In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, edited by C. Smith, pp. 5239-5247. Springer Press, New York.
Glascock, M.D., G.E. Braswell, and R.H. Cobean (1998).
A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization. In Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory, edited by M.S. Shackley, pp. 15–65. Plenum Press, New York.
Glascock, M.D., R.J. Speakman, and H. Neff (2007)
Archaeometry at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and the Provenance of Obsidian Artifacts in North America. Archaeometry 49(2): 343–357.